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Do we Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

There are many risk factors that can increase the chance of breast cancer. Although it is not exactly known by the researchers how described risk factors can cause to change normal cells into cancerous. One of the many studies finds out that hormones play a role in many cases of breast cancer. But how hormones play their role in cancer, can not be understood clearly, even in the most advanced era of the health sector. Certain changes in the DNA can cause normal breast cells to become in cancerous cells. These changes in DNA known as Mutation. DNA is a chemical in each cell that makes up our genes. Gene is a staircase like the pattern of DNA that contains information. On the basis of this instruction, our body cells perform. We look like our parents and many of our habits resemble our parents is just due to the DNA. In addition to this, we should know that DNA acts more than the resemblance with parents but also affects our cells how they grow, divide and die according to the instruction in the genes of the DNA. Certain genes that speed up the cell division known as Oncogenes. Some genes that are responsible for slowing down cell division or cause cells to die at the right time know as Tumor Suppressor Genes. Different types of cancer can be caused by the DNA Mutation that “Turn On” oncogenes or “Turn Off” tumor suppressor genes.

Inherited Gene Mutation

Some special types of inherited DNA Mutations can be responsible for cancer. Moreover, this cancer can be transfer to the next upcoming generations. Genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2 are Tumor Suppressor Genes. These genes inherited to the next generation and mutation in these genes can be responsible for the transfer of Cancer. Mutation in these genes can be inherited from parents. When they are mutated, they no longer suppress abnormal growth and cancer is more likely to develop. Now, some women have begun to benefit from the advances in the medical sciences. Medical sciences succeed in understanding, how genetics affect breast cancer risk. Genetic testing has an ability to identify heredity cancer risk in most of the women. It can identify women who have inherited gene mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes (Less commonly in p53 or PTEN). After diagnosis, women can take steps to reduce the risk that breast cancer develops and to monitor changes in their breast carefully to find cancer in earlier stages.

Acquired Gene Mutation

Most DNA mutations related to breast cancer occur in breast cells during a woman’s life rather than having been inherited. These acquired mutations of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes may result from such factors as radiation or cancer-causing chemicals. But so far, the causes of most acquired mutations that may lead to breast cancer remain unknown. Most breast cancers have several gene mutations that are acquired. Tests that detect acquired gene changes may help doctors more accurately predict the prognosis for some women with breast cancer. For example, tests can identify women whose breast cancer cells have too many copies of the HER2 oncogene. These cancers tend to be more aggressive; however, drugs have been developed that specifically target cancer with too many copies of HER2.  

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