The body consists of hundreds of millions. Living cells are normal body cells that grow, divide, and so on die in an organized fashion. Cancer is a fatal disease that is caused by abnormal growth of cells, which results in a tumor in a part of the human body. Now, we want to discuss the invasive carcinoma, Breast Cancer. Both males and females can be affected by this disease. According to WHO statistics, females are more affected by this disease.
Breast cancer is a disease, that forms in the breasts due to malignant growth of cells resulting in tumors. In developing and affluent population countries, like the USA, Australia, Canada, on third cases are reported. The risk of developing breast cancer was increasing until the early 1980s in more and less developed countries. Rates of incidence continue to increase in less developed countries but have been leveling off or declining in more developed countries as a result of mammographic screening.
Difference between Normal and Cancerous Breast
The female breast consists mainly of lobules (Milk-producing glands), ducts (small tubes that take milk from labels to nipples), And stroma (fatty tissue and connective tissue surrounding the kidneys and bubbles, blood and lymphatic vessels). Most breast cancers start in rows that line up ducts (ductal carcinoma) start something cells that line the lobules (lobular carcinoma), While a small number starts in other tissues.
Find out if the cancer cells have spread Important for the lymph nodes if they have them, they are there there is a high chance that cells can enter Blood flow and metastasized (proliferation) Other sites in the body. Most breast lumps are benign (not cancerous). However, tissue samples may be needed to be seen through lumps and under a microscope to prove that they are not cancer.
Most lumps in the breast represent fibrocystic changes. Fibrocystic refers to fibrosis and cysts. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous (scar-like) tissue and cysts are fluid-filled sacs. Fibrocystic changes can cause breast swelling and pain. These changes often occur just before the start of your menstrual period. Your breasts may feel lumpy and you may notice a clear or slightly cloudy nipple discharge.
Origination and Causes of Breast Cancer
The origin of breast cancer involves many factors like diet, reproductive factors, lifestyle, and hormones. These factors are base on the statistical study and analysis of the cases. The study includes diet, physical activities, reproductive priorities, and hormones. We will discuss the factors in details below:
Impact of Diet:
From descriptive epidemiological data, breast cancer is a disease of affluent societies that have acquired the “Western lifestyle”. A lifestyle includes a high-calorie diet rich in animal fat and proteins. In addition to this, a lifestyle that contains a lack of physical activities.
The reproductive history of women highly impacts the spread of this disease. Women suffer from this disease frequently who have early menarche(the first occurrence of menstruation). Also, women who remain nulliparous or if parous, have few children at a late age.
Effect on Pregnancies:
Studies confirmed the effect of late age deliveries, reduce the number of pregnancies. In these effects, breastfeeding is reduced, which is the main cause of Breast cancer. Controversies still around the issue of abortion but the effect of lactation, impact a strong factor. Physician recommended feeding not less than two years to prevent cancer.
Effect of Hormones:
There is overwhelming evidence from epidemiological studies that sex steroids (androgens, estrogens, progestogens) have an important role in the development of breast carcinomas. Growing evidence shows a strong and consistent link between blood concentrations of estrogen and testosterone in postmenopausal women and the risk of developing breast cancer.
Oral contraceptives are birth control pills used to prevent pregnancy. It was previously believed that oral contraceptives might increase the risk of breast cancer. But more than 50 case studies conclude that women who use oral contraceptives can be an effect of breast cancer. Women who use less than 10 years compared to never usage are 1.25 percent protective. Hence, there is a small effect of using birth control pills.
The relationship between physical activity and risk of breast cancer has been assessed by IARC, which concluded that higher levels of activity are associated with a reduction in risk. Most studies have focused on postmenopausal breast cancer, although there is also some evidence for a protective effect of physical activity on the premenopausal disease.
Unhealthy fast foods contain a high amount of calories, which requires tremendous exercise to digest. Due to a lack of physical activities, the body gains weight. High body mass is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. The total intake of fat, and saturated animal fat, may also increase the risk.
The consumption of alcohol has been consistently associated with a moderate increase in the risk of breast cancer. According to the dose-response relationship (number of drinks per day), even a low level of consumption was associated with an increase in risk.
Signs and Symptoms of Breast cancer
Signs and symptoms of breast cancer may include:
- A lump or thickening of the breast that feels different from the surrounding tissue.
- Changes in the shape, form, or shape of the breast.
- Skin changes over the breast, such as dumplings.
- A new ultimate nipple.
- Peeling, scaling, crusting or shining of the oily part of the skin around the nipple (areola) or breast skin
- The redness or groove of the skin above your breast, like orange peel.
Risk Factors of Breast Cancer
A risk factor is anything that can be the reason for disease, such as cancer. Risk factors alter with different types of cancer. For example, direct sunlight will cause Skin Cancer. Smoking is injurious for the lungs and major causes of lungs, Bladder, Kidney, and mouth cancer.
Risk factors are not a hard and fast rule to define the cause of disease. Most women have many risk factors, but they have no positive result in breast cancer. Contrary to this, many women do not have any apparent risk factors but suffered from breast cancer. Some risk factors that cannot be changed as listed below.
One of the unchanged risk factors is Gender. According to statistics, women are more affected than men. This disease is a hundred times more common among women than men. The main reason for the high statistics of this disease among women is because women’s breast cells are constantly exposed to the growth-promoting effects on the female hormones Estrogen and Progesterone (Female Sex Hormones).
Aging is the most prominent risk factor of breast cancer among women. According to Statistics and case studies, almost 80% of the Breast cancer cases found in women more than the age of 45 years. Whereas, 2 of 3 invasive breast cancers are found in women aged 55 or older.
Genetic Risk Factor
The most prominent factor of breast cancer is Genetic and heredity. Almost 5-10% of cases of this disease is due to the genetic disorder known as Mutation of Genes, Inherited from the parents. There are many genes including BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, p53, etc responsible for this disease.